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4. Обзор многофункциональных глаголов.

1) алгоритм перевода глагола to be
Н
апример:


  1. Не is at home now. — Он сейчас (находится) дома.

  2. Не was homesick. — Он тосковал по дому. Не is a good swimmer. — Он хороший пловец.

Примечание: to be + существительное-деятель передает постоян­ное качество.

  1. Helen is to meet Jane at the station. — Элен должна встретить Джейн на станции. The conference was to be held in May. — Конференция должна была состояться в мае.

  2. She is reading in her room. - Она (сейчас) читает в своей комнате. We'll be waiting for her. — Мы будем ждать ее. We have been living here since 1950. — Мы живем здесь с 1950 года.

  3. His name is known all over the world. — Его имя известно во всем мире. Не was interested in poetry. — Он интересовался поэзией.

Упражнения

1. А. Определите залог (Active или Passive) и вре­мя глагола в следующих моделях и сформулируй­те правила перевода этих моделей.

В. Подберите соответствующие примеры из упражнения 2.
I. to be в качестве смыслового глагола

а)

am, is, are

was, were

will (shall) be





б)

am, is, are

was, were + being

will (shall) be





c)

have, has

had + been

will (shall) have

II. to be в качестве вспомогательного глагола



а)

am, is, are

was, were + Ving

will (shall) be


б)

have, has

had + been + Ving

will (shall) have


c)

am, is, are

was, were + V3

will (shall) be


d)

am, is, are

+ being + V3

was, were


е)

б have, has

had + been + V3



will (shall) have)


2. Переведите следующие предложения (используя модели упражнения 1).

  1. My sister has been to Moscow this year.

  2. Ann is standing at the blackboard and writing something.

  3. John is a strong believer in fresh air.

  4. The pupils were asked a lot of questions at the last lesson.

  5. The theatre is being built not far from our house.

  6. He had been working for an hour and a half already.

  7. It was very warm last summer.

  8. My mother will be operated by a famous professor.

  9. I have been looking for you everywhere.

  10. The doctor will be here at three o'clock.

  11. They were discussing a new film when we came in.

  12. By five o'clock we will have been working for three hours.

  13. It was some years ago.

  14. It is known that there are sixty minutes in an hour.

  15. The magazine will be brought tomorrow.

  16. He said he had been studying English since 1960.

  17. This work will have been done by that time.

  18. I had been sitting here all the afternoon and had seen nobody.

  19. What a small eater you are!

  20. English is spoken in many countries of the world.

  21. It is said that he is a good writer.

  22. A new school is being built in our street now.

  23. What have you been looking for all this time?

  24. The newspapers are read by everyone.

  25. This book is being translated into English.

  26. In ten minutes I was taken to hospital.

  27. But she was hopeful that she might meet someone she knew.

  28. They were seen at the theatre last week.

  29. The weather had been bad before we arrived there.

  30. You are so old that you could be my grandfather.

  31. We are to be married next week.

  32. Classes were over at three o'clock.

  33. Don't be so nasty.

  34. The girl you were speaking to is our student.

  35. The meeting had been over by 7:30.

  36. He is being waited for.

  37. The book is being still read.

  38. This book will be translated into English.

  39. They are to go to the country.

  40. She has been taken to Paris.

  41. I was to come to the examination at ten o'clock.

  42. You are being very offensive.

  43. Bob has been to London.

  44. He was a bad tennis player.

  45. Yesterday I saw the film which is much spoken about.

  46. You are wanted on the telephone.

  47. What exactly was Bennie Hyman being so mysterious about this morning?

  48. There is one point I'm not clear about.

  49. There will be a new cinema in our street soon.

  50. You are a giver and she is a taker.

  51. Tomorrow is being built today.

  52. Your task is to meet the guests at the station.

  53. There was no taxi to be found at that late hour.

  54. The boys were waiting for the headmaster to come in.

  55. The book will have been finished by Friday.

  56. Hurry! The roll is being called.

  57. Twenty years ago George was inclined to be fat.

  58. Whether we can help you is a difficult question.

  59. That will be George at the door, I expect.

  60. It is right that he should have been punished.

  61. This medicine is to be taken three times a day.

  62. You are to wait here until the manager arrives.

  63. He is about to go.

  64. It is not in him to do such a thing.


3. Переведите текст, обращая внимание на различ­ные функции глагола to be.

WHAT'S IN A NAME?

Many everyday objects are given their names for a reason. The biro (a ballpoint pen) was invented by George and Josef Biro, so it was named after them. The sandwich, on the other hand, was named after the 4th Earl of Sandwich in 1762. Despite the fact that the idea of eating slices of meat between slices of bread was not a new one, the Earl of Sandwich made it popular. He would ask to be served this dish at his card table so that he could play all day. Morse code (the use of long and short sounds to send mes­sages along a wire) was invented by Samuel Morse in 1844 and bermuda shorts were so named because they first became popular in Bermuda. So, next time you use an everyday object, why not stop and think about where its name came from? You might be surprised!

4. Обзор многофункциональных глаголов.

2) Алгоритм перевода глагола to have





Например:

1.I have a friend. — У меня есть друг.

2. I have dinner at two o'clock. — Я обедаю в два часа.

Usually they had a talk after dinner. — Обычно после обеда они разговаривали.

3. Не had his watch repaired yesterday. — Он по­чинил часы вчера (не сам, а ему починили).

4. She had to wait for a long time. — Ей пришлось долго ждать.

5.I have known him since my childhood. — Я знаю его с детства.

Упражнения

1. А. Определите залог и время глагола в следую­щих моделях и сформулируйте правила перевода этих моделей.

Б. Подберите соответствующие примеры из уп­ражнения 2.

I. to have в качестве смыслового глагола

а)

have, has

had


will (shall) have

б)

am, is, are

was, were + having

will (shall) be


c)

have, has

had + had

will (shall) have


d)

have, has

had + been + having

will (shall) have



II. to have в качестве вспомогательного глагола

а)

have, has

had + V3

will (shall) have


б)

have, has

had + been + Ving

will (shall) have


c)

have, has

had + been + V3



will (shall) have



2. Переведите следующие предложения (используя модели и алгоритм упражнения 1).


  1. We often went to the cinema and the theatre and
    then we discussed what we had seen.

  2. They are having their dinner.

  3. He has been here since three o'clock.

  4. They'll be glad to have me.

  5. I have been looking for you everywhere.

  6. She had to look up the words in the dictionary.

  7. I'll have had breakfast by eight o'clock.

  8. They have finished their work in time.

  9. When mother comes home, we'll have dinner.

  10. She will have passed the exam by six o'clock.

  11. I have to have tea instead of coffee.

  12. How long have you been waiting for her?

  13. We'll have examinations next month.

  14. He forgot that he had had his supper.

  15. I have read the book and I can give it to you
    now.

  16. You will have to explain the grammar rule once
    more.

  17. The exercise has not been done yet.

  18. I have to work very hard.

  19. I've just had my coat cleaned.

  20. When people have time for leisure, they usu­
    ally need something that can amuse and interest
    them.

  21. How long have you been writing a letter and
    when will you have finished it?

  22. Someone has eaten the cake.

  23. They had to work till night last week.

  24. The rain has stopped.

  25. When father comes, we'll have tea.

  26. The British Museum has one of the largest libraries in the world.

  27. The man told us that he had been to England.

  28. She had to get up early yesterday.

  29. The family has just had tea.

  30. I knew that the Petrovs had lived in Moscow.

  31. Nina had to do this exercise.

  32. We have known him for more than ten years.

  33. Have some more cake, please.

  34. The students have listened to the text.

  35. I cannot have my clients disturbed in the middle of the night.

  36. Women's clothes today have plenty of colour.

  37. I had been having supper when you rang me up.

  38. They had to get up at six o'clock yesterday morning.

  39. They have been seen here since nine o'clock.

  40. You will have to rewrite the exercise.

  41. You will have no other way out.

  42. Tell me first what has made you so excited. Tell me everything that has been happening.

  43. He had me around the waist.

  44. I had you in my mind, and you have never been out of my mind, while I have been writing this book.

  45. If I do the thing, I'll do it thoroughly, but I must have a free hand.

  46. He remembered that he had been walking about the city but where, or why, or how long, he had no idea.

  47. He has finished his work.

  48. He has to finish his work.

  49. By five o'clock we'll have been working for three hours.

  50. A Joke.

Teacher: What's wrong in the sentence "Ann didn't go to the library yesterday, as she had had a birthday"?

Student: If the sentence which had "had had" had had "had" it would have been correct.

  1. We have very little milk left, we need to buy some.

  2. I've seen nearly every film he has directed.

  3. I will have set the table by the time you come home.

  4. I will go to bed as soon as I have finished this chapter.

  5. I wish I hadn't broken your favourite toy.

  6. We have to be at the airport at nine o'clock.

  7. He had his bike stolen while he was in the bank.

  8. She didn't have to take a taxi.

  9. He must have been sleeping.

  10. I have the right to stay here.

  11. They will have to leave the port even if the storm begins.

  12. Did you have a good rest on Sunday?

  13. I enjoy having my friends around me.

  14. I hope to have an opportunity of seeing you.

  15. You must have your hair cut.

  16. I have not had the pleasure of meeting you yet.

  17. You will have to come here again.

  18. The stone steps have worn smooth.

  19. This house is likely to have been built many centuries ago.

  20. I won't have it!


4. Обзор многофункциональных глаголов.

3) Алгоритм перевода глагола to do





Например:

1. Не always does his lessons in the evening. — Он всегда делает уроки вечером.

What were you doing at 7 o'clock? — Что вы делали в семь часов?

2. Where do you live? — Где вы живете?

I didn't go there. — Я не ходил туда.

3. Which of them lives in Kiev? — Ann does. — Кто из них живет в Киеве? — Анна (живет).

Не stayed there much longer than he usually does. — Он оставался там значительно дольше, чем остается обычно (чем он обычно это делает).

4. Не does help them. — Он же (ведь) помогает им.


She did ask us about it. — Она действительно спрашивала об этом.

Примечания

Глагол to do в качестве смыслового глагола может встречаться в любой видо-временной форме (см. упражнение 1 данного раздела).

Глагол to do в функциях вспомогательного глагола, заместителя смыслового глагола и усилительного глагола употребляется только в формах do, does, did.

Упражнения

1. А. Определите залог и время глагола to do в следующих моделях.

Б. Подберите из упражнения 2 примеры, соответствующие этим моделям.

а)

do, does

did


will (shall) do

б)

am, is, are

was, were + doing

will (shall) be


c)

have, has

had + done

will (shall) have


d)

have, has

had + been + doingwill (shall) have






e)

is, are

was, were + done

will be


f)

is, are

+ being + done

was, were


g)

have, has

had + been + done



will (shall) have


2. Переведите следующие предложения.


  1. She bought a picture but she didn't show it to us.

  2. You have done this exercise well.

  3. Nina had to do this exercise.

  4. Do you know the man who is talking to our teacher?

  5. The translation must be done without a dictionary.

  6. He said he would come and he did come.

  7. She has done well in her exam.

  8. The exercises have not been done yet.

  9. What are you doing there?

  10. In autumn it doesn't snow so often as in winter.

  11. Now I see that she does know the subject well.

  12. The work is done by the students.

  13. Who saw him yesterday? — I did.

  14. How long have you been doing this work and when will you have finished it?

  15. Pete had to write this exercise because he couldn't do it at home.

  16. It didn't rain.

  17. Where do you usually do your English lessons?

  18. We do not know very much of this author. But we do know that all the three poems were written by him.

  19. "Do you want to see our flat?" Alec asks me. "Certainly, I do," I answer.

  20. A fine weekend is just what we all need, don't we?

  21. Pete was doing something when Kate came from school.

  22. This work is still being done.

  23. A war danger in the world does exist.

  24. He stayed there much longer than he usually did.

  25. When in Rome, do as the Romans do.

  26. She said she couldn't see me. She was too busy doing other things.

  27. I like my future speciality very much and I shall do my best to be a good student.

  28. Do inform them about it.

  29. They did everything together.

  30. Do you do your homework every day?

  31. These old manuscripts are not so easy to read as our modern books, for the reason that there is no space between words. The later manuscripts, however, do sometimes have spaces between words just as we have.

  32. In the evening I do my homework, read books, and magazines.

  33. They will be doing their homework at five.

  34. The work had been done by this time yesterday.

  35. Newton did make contribution to astronomy.

  36. Do you think it's right to punish people for things they haven't done?

  37. This work will have been done by that time.

  38. A job is usually done badly when too many people do it.

  39. Though the work is difficult, I'll do it, and it will be done well.

  40. Do you have any money? Does John?

  41. I didn't have any money, nor did George.

  42. I have tea for breakfast and so does my wife.

  43. Do we have to keep together?

  44. The dog's barking didn't wake me up, the alarm clock did.

  45. Do stay a little longer.

  46. I hope he doesn't go back on his promise.

  47. Bob doesn't like being asked questions about his job.

  48. You don't have to worry about it.

  49. Paul always does his homework on his own.

  50. He doesn't mind doing that.
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