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Е.С. Татищева
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ,

ЗПДПНИЯ:

КЛЮЧИ

К УЧЕБНИКУ
«Практический курс английского языка»

под редакцией Б.Д. Аракина



2
курс

Москва
^ВПАПОС

2005


УДК 811.111(076.2) ББК 81.2Англ-923 Т23

предисловие


Татищева Е.С.

Т23 Упражнения, задания: ключи к учебнику «Практи ческий курс английского языка. 2 курс» под редакцией В.Д. Аракина/Е.С. Татищева. — М. : Гуманитар, изд центр ВЛАДОС, 2005. — 197 с.



18Ш 5-691-01371-8.

Агентство С1Р РГБ.

В пособии представлены ключи ко всем упражнениям учебни ка, кроме творческих заданий. Во многих случаях переводы как русского языка на английский, так и с английского на русски даны в нескольких возможных вариантах.

Пособие предназначено для студентов и преподавателей филе логических факультетов. Оно будет полезно всем, изучающим ан глийский язык.

УДК 811.111(076.2 ББК 81.2 Англ-92:

В пособии содержатся ключи практически ко всем грам-млтическим упражнениям и ко всем упражнениям из основной части учебника английского языка под редакцией И.Д. Аракина.

Владение данными ключами избавит вас от необходимости «перерывать» словари и терзаться сомнениями: правильно ли я перевел текст или нет? Конечно, обратиться к данному пособию следует лишь после того, как будут самостоятельно сделаны упражнения. Ключ — это не шпаргалка, а всего лишь хороший способ проверить себя самого до того, как сдать домашнюю работу преподавателю.

Все полезные замечания и предложения, которые вы пришлете в издательство, будут учтены в следующих изданиях.

Успехов вам в учебе!



Автор




© Татищева Е.С„ 2004 © ООО «Гуманитарный издательский цент]

ВЛАДОС», 2004 © Серийное оформление обложки. ООО «Гу

манитарный издательский центр ВЛАДОС»

2004

© Макет. ООО «Гуманитарный издательски:
ISBN 5-691-01371-8 центр ВЛАДОС», 2004


ESSENTIAL COURSE

unit one

Ex. I, p. 8

1. If the boy were hungry, I would/should give him somethin to eat. 2. If the supper were ready, we should/would sit down t table. 3. If I got a good mark for my composition, I would/shoul be happy. 4. If Mary had more free time, she would read more; 5. If the weather changed, we would/should go boating. 6. If had no opportunity to see him, I would/should be very sorry. 7.1 it didn't rain, I wouldn't/shouldn't have to take my umbrella wit" me. 8. If she finished everything on Friday, she wouldn't have t work on Saturday. 9. If you caught a cold, you would have to sta at home. 10. If the child didn't do what I told him, I would/shoul have to punish him.


Ex. Ill, p. 9

l.The students liked the idea of working in the lab twice week. 2. We liked the idea of visiting our sick friend. 3. Th children liked the idea of going on an excursion. 4. We didn' like the idea of staying indoors all day long. 5. Don't you like th idea of going to the theatre tonight? 6. All of us liked the idea o arranging a party at our University. 8. We liked the idea of goin to the cinema after the lessons.


Ex. IV, p. 9

1. If I weren't tired, I would walk about/nround (go and! look about/around) the city. 2. We wouldn't go to this! performance tomorrow if it weren't the first night. 3. If I didn't live so far, I would visit you more often. 4. If he spoke louder, the audience would listen to him with more interest. 5. If she had a bad memory, she wouldn't be able to memorize so many figures at a time. 6.1 would like the idea of going to the Crimea/ I wouldn't mind going to the Crimea if it weren't so hot there now. 7. We all liked his idea of meeting at the beginning of the academic year.



Ex. Ill, p. 19

») grow — grew, grown

creep — crept, crept — ползти, тайком пробираться

bear — bore, born — терпеть, выносить

break — broke, broken

keep — kept, kept

think — thought, thought

leap — leapt, leapt [lept]/leaped, leaped — прыгать

mean — meant, meant [ment]

fall - fell, fallen

find — found, found

feel — felt, felt

say — said, said

cling — clung, clung — прижиматься hear — heard, heard meet — met.snet run — ran, run show — showed, shown

b) differ — differed, differing prefer — preferred, preferring murmur murmured, murmuring appear — appeared, appearing occur — occurred, occurring recover — recovered, recovering remember — remember, remembering chatter — chattered, chattering — болтать, вести пустой

разговор; трещать, тараторить; стучать refer — referred, referring stir — stirred, stirring

water — watered, watering — 1. поливать; 2. слезиться fear — feared, fearing offer — offered, offering

drag — dragged, dragging — тащить (волоком), волочить wag — wagged, wagging — вилять (хвостом) plan — planned, planning

chat — chatted, chatting — болтать, непринужденно беседовать, говорить о том о сем slip — slipped, slipping beg — begged, begging
dependence

independence

difference

indifference

existence

insistence

occurrence

Ex. IV, p. 20

acceptance resemblance attendance performance

wavy (wave) — волнистый

stony (stone) — 1. каменистый; 2. каменный, безжалостный, холодный (stony heart — каменное сердце)



Ex. VIII, p. 21

inconvenient, inconvenience; discomfort, uncomfortable; ndependent, independence; indifferent, indifference; unable, ncapable; unimportant; inexperienced/unexperienced; lisobedient; misunderstanding (недоразумение); dishonesty





Ex. IXa,p. 21

Can you remember your first day at school? It was probably Father confusing. I am sure you ran after your mother thinking who was deserting you.When the child goes to school on his first day, he has to watch his mother leaving. The teacher must convince hi in that at the'end of the day his mother and home will still be there. It is difficult to make the newcomer join in a game or a walk. A new life, completely different from what he is used to begins.

The mothers are as upset as their children. They hang on with their eyes fixed on their children and dislike leaving them to their fat§.

The best way to deal with the situation is to get the child used In the idea of school, to help him in every way. Much depends on the parents. At the beginning of the term the mother should take hri child to see the teacher and to look about/around/round the ichool. The first day should be something to look forward to and not to be feared.



Ex. V, p. 20


a)



The suffixes-ed and -y are used to form adjectives.' Freckled is derived from freckle and means веснушчатый Nosed is derived from nose and means носатый. It is alsA widely used in compounds: long-nosed — длинноносый; snutflp nosed — курносый; aquiline-nosed —имеющий носе горбинкой hook-nosed — крючконосый; red-nosed — красноносый; hard nosed — (US) сугубо практичный, реалистичный, etc.).

Haired is derived from hair and means волосатый, покрытый волосами. It is widely used in compounds meaning имекщ щий такие-то волосы: long-haired — длинноволосый; dark haired — темноволосый; fair-haired — светловолосый, red haired — рыжий, etc. .

Winged is derived from wing and means крылатый, имекМ щий крылья (winged words — крылатые слова). It can be usecj to form compounds: white-winged — белокрылый, etc.


Ex. X, p. 22

1.1 looked (up, down) at the opposite house but saw no lights in its windows. — Я посмотрел (вверх, вниз) на дом напротив, пи не увидел в его окнах ни единого огонька.

Не looked at me but didn't recognize me. — Он посмотрел mi меня, но не узнал.

Не stared at me as if I had asked him to do something impossible. — Он уставился на меня так, словно я попросил ■ I о совершить что-то невыполнимое.

Не stared at the fire, deep in thought. — Погруженный в гнои мысли, он безучастно смотрел на огонь.

He's very fond of this picture, he can gaze at it for hours. — Он очень любит эту картину и может смотреть на нее часами.

Horned is derived from horn and means рогатый. It cai also be used to form compounds: long-horned — длиннорогий etc.

Bearded is derived from beard and means бородатый. It cai be used to form compounds too: black-bearded — чернобородый etc.

Feathered is derived from feather and means пернатый, one репный, украшенный перьями. It can also be part of compounds: long-feathered, bright-feathered, etc.

b) watery (water) — 1. водянистый; 2. бледный, бесцветный; 3. слезящийся

skinny (skin) — тощий, «кожа да кости» grassy (grass) — травянистый, поросший травой silky (silk) — шелковистый bony (bone) — костлявый, костистый branchy (branch) — ветвистый




огляделсямбыло
The lovers stood with their hands clasped, gazing into eac other's eyes. — Влюбленные стояли, взявшись за руки и гл дя в глаза друг друга.

I looked about but saw no people anywhere. — Я но нигде не увидел ни одного человека.

Look ahead! — Смотри вперед!

Look out! — Берегись!/Осторожно!

Look through those documents, please. — Просмотри, no жалуйста, те документы.

I'll look after the child. — Я присмотрю за ребенком.

Don't forget to look after the flowers when I'm away. — H< забывай ухаживать за цветами, пока я буду в отъезде.

I've been looking for you since the very morning. — Я pa зыскиваю тебя с самого утра.


-4

John looked forward to seeing Mario and his wife. — Джо предвкушал встречу/с нетерпением ожидал встречи с Map* и его женой.

Students always look forward to their holidays. — Студен ты всегда с нетерпением ждут каникул. j

Look here, would't it be better to stay indoors in such nastji| weather? — Послушай, может, в такую мерзкую погоду луч ше посидеть дома?

Не looks sad. — У него печальный вид.

The child looks ill/well. — Ребенок выглядит больным/здо ровым. Ч

She looks like a real teacher. — Она похожа на настоящую! учительницу.

It looks like rain. — Похоже, будет дождь./Кажется, дождь собирается.
Note:

Не looks young for his age. — Он выглядит молодо для своих лет.

She looks beautiful in this dress. — В этом платье она выглядит красавицей.

She looks a child. — Она выглядит ребенком.

She seems (to be) clever. — Она кажется умной./Похоже, она умна.

This village seems (to be) quite small now. — Теперь эта деревушка кажется совсем маленькой.

Не seems (to be) well educated. — Похоже, он хорошо образован.

There was something strange in his look. — В его взгляде io что-то странное.

Lanny returned the man's stare but didn't utter a word. — .Пенни ответил ему таким же пристальным взглядом, но не

произнес ни слова.

The girl blushed when she noticed the stranger's fixed gnze. — Заметив пристальный взгляд незнакомца, девушка покраснела.

Have a look at this photo, do you recognize the man? — Посмотрите на фотографию: вы узнаете этого человека?


Note:

I don't knc-w his point of view on/views on/ idea(s) of/opinion

of this subject. — Мне неизвестна(-ы) его точка зрения /взгля-

ды|/мнение по этому вопросу.

A look of pleasure came to her face. — На ее лице появилось

довольное выражение.

There was an angry look in her eyes. — В ее глазах читался

гнев.
2. The two brothers differ in their tastes. — У этих двух братьев разные вкусы.

His plan differs from all the others. — Его план отличается

от всех остальных.

I differ from/with you in this matter. — По этому вопросу я

с нами не согласен.

Не is quite different from what I thought him to be. — Он гонсем не такой, как я думал.

I want a different kind of book this time. — На этот раз мне бы хотелось книгу другого рода.

But: I prefer books of a different kind. — Я предпочитаю книги другого рода.

Our views on life are different. — У нас разные взгляды на

жизнь.

Our tastes are alike. — Наши вкусы похожи. A department store sells many different things. — В уни-т-рмагах продается множество различных товаров.



Every day our students get different written assignments. -Каждый день наши студенты получают различные, письмен ные задания.

The difference between our views is not very great. — Раз личие между нашими взглядами не так уж и велико.

I don't find much difference in the styles of these writers. — Я не вижу большой разницы в стилях этих писателей.

It won't make much difference whether we do it today 01 tomorrow. — Сегодня мы это сделаем или завтра — разниш небольшая.

You may stay or leave, it makes no difference to me. — Xo' чешь, оставайся, хочешь, уезжай — мне все равно.


  1. Не rested for an hour before going on with his work. — Перед тем как продолжить работу, он часок отдохнул.

She likes to rest after dinner. — Она любит полежать /спокойно отдохнуть после обеда.

They stopped to rest their horses. — Они остановились, чтобы дать отдых лошадям.

The roof rests on eight columns. — Крыша опирается на восемь колонн.

There is always a cloud resting at the top of this mountain. — Вершина этой горы всегда окутана облаком.

Her fingers touched his forehead and rested there. — Она приложила пальцы к его лбу./Ее пальцы коснулись его лба и задержались там.

She sat with her elbows resting on the table. — Она сидела, положив локти на стол.

Rest is necessary after work. — Послеработы необходнмотдых.

I had a good night's rest. — Ночью я хорошо спал.

We had several rests on our way up the mountains. — Поднимая^- в горы, мы сделали несколько остановок, чтобы передохнуть.


  1. have you written all the exercises? — No, only half of them. The rest (of the exercises) may be done orally. — Ты сделал все упражнения? — Нет, только половину. Остальные можно сделать устно.

Only five of us were present at the lesson. The rest (of the group) went to the meeting. — Только пятеро из нас присутствовали на уроке. Остальные пошли на собрание./Остальная часть группы пошла на собрание.

I'll take an apple and you may take the rest. — Я возьму яблоко, а ты можешь взять все остальное.

5. a comfortable chair, room, bed, house — удобный стул, уютная комната, удобная кровать, уютный/удобный/комфортабельный дом

I'm sure, you'll be very comfortable there. — Уверен, там вам будет очень удобно.

comfortable words — утешительные слова

Mr. Murdoch made himself comfortable in a chair and ordered n strong black coffee. — Мистер Мэрдок устроился поудобнее на стуле и заказал крепкий черный кофе.

The news brought comfort to all of us. — Эта новость была для всех нас утешением.

Не was a great comfort to his parents. — Он очень поддерживал своих родителей.

Note:

convenient time, method tool, place — удобное(-ый) время,



способ, инструмент, место

Will this bus be convenient to/for you? — Этот автобус тебе

подойдет?

Let's arrange a convenient time and place for the conference. — Давайте договоримся об удобном месте и времени для проведения конференции.


at your earliest convenience — как только вы сможете; как можно скорее (преим. офиц.)

The house has all modern conveniences. — В доме есть все удобства.

6. I ran all the way for fear of being late. — Я бежал всю дорогу, потому что боялся опоздать.

As soon as we fired, the enemy ran. — Как только мы начали стрелять, враг обратился в бегство.

Trams run on rails. — Трамваи ходят по рельсам.

Motor cars run along ordinary roads. — Легковые автомобили ездят по обычным дорогам.

The buses run every five minutes. — Автобусы ходят/курсируют каждые пять минут.

По улице бежал

Torrents of water ran down the street, потоки воды.

Rivers run into the sea. — Реки впадают в моря.

Don't you hear the water running in the kitchen? — Неуже ли ты не слышишь, как в кухне льется из крана вода?

If you have a bad cold, your nose runs. — При сильной про студе течет из носа.

For several miles the road ran across a plain. — Нескольк миль дорога шла по равнине.

Note: .


The forest stretched to the south for many miles. — Лес про] стирался на юг на много миль.
So the story runs. — Так говорится в рассказе./Так расска зывают.

The story runs... — Рассказывают... Our car ran into the bus. — Наша машина врезалась в авто

бус.

I ran into a friend of mine on my way home. — По дорог домой я случайно встретился с другом.



The other day I ran across a very interesting article in th. newspaper. — На днях я натолкнулся в газете на очень инте-ресную статью.

But for the skill of the driver the man would have been ru over by the bus. — Если бы не умелые действия водителя, о попал бы под колеса автобуса.



7. I couldn't join (together) the two halves of the vase because a small piece was missing. Я не мог сложить дв половинки вазы вместе, потому что не хватало маленького кусочка.

Where do the two streams join (each other)? — Где сливают ся эти два потока?

Note: .

The island was joined to the mainland with a bridge. — Ост ров соединялся с материком мостом.



We united all our forces to drive the enemy out of tin country. — Мы объединили все наши силы, чтобы изгнать вра га с территории нашей страны.

Workers of the world, unite! — Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!

The United Nations Organization (UNO) was formed in 1945 in San Francisco. — Организация Объединенных Наций была создана в Сан-Франциско в 1945 году.
Will you join me in my walk? — Ты не погуляешь со мной?

We'll join you in a few minutes. — Мы присоединимся к тебе через несколько минут.

If I were you, I should join this club. — На твоем месте я вступил бы в члены этого клуба.

Не was-twenty-two when he joined the army. — Ему было двадцать два года, когда он пошел в армию.

8. We depend on newspapers for information about world events. — О том, что происходит в мире, мы узнаем из газет.

Не depends on his sister for a living. — Он живет за счет своей сестры.

You can depend upon the man. — На этого человека можно положиться.

I depend on you to do it. Я рассчитываю, что ты это сделаешь.

Can I depend on this time-table or is it an old one? — Этому расписанию можно верить или оно устарело?

Will you finish your work on time? — It depends. — Ты закончишь работу в назначенный срок? — Смотря по обстоятельствам./Как получится.



Ex. XI, р. 22

1. It's impolite to stare at people like that. 2. A big crowd Htood on the pavement staring at a broken car. 3. No wonder people stand gazing at this picture for hours: it's beautiful. 4. The little boys stood staring at each other ready to start a fight. f>. Look at her: again she is staring out of the window with that strange expression of hers. 6. When I looked at her eyes, I guessed that she had cried. 7. The Greek myth runs that Narcissus stared/ i:.i/ed at his own reflection in the water until he fell in love with it. 8. He stood gazing around as if he tried to impress on his memory everything he saw.


Ex. XII, p. 22

) l.The weather seems quite warm though it's only 5 'C abov zero. 2. The children look tired, but they seem greatly please* with the trip, don't they? 3. The host and the hostess look a bi old-fashioned, but they seem to be hospitable and friendly. 4. Sh seems to be very light-minded, but she only looks it, in fact sh, is a very serious and hard-working student. 5. My brother sayi that people usually look what they are and I believe that peoph are very often quite different from what they seem to be.



  1. 1. The teacher tried to explain the rule in a different way an I understood it at once. 2. The schoolboy returned the book h had read and asked for another book, but of a different kind, ha said, as he wanted to have a rest from detective stories. 3.1 askedl for a pair of shoes of a different kind, but the shop-girl said thalj the rest of the shoes were not my size.

  2. 1. A small stream runs along the road. 2. These steppeaa stretch to the south for miles and miles. 3. The path ran acrossf the field for a mile and then was lost in the forest. 4. No manor how hard I looked, I saw only a vast plain stretching before me.a 5. The ugly scar ran right across the man's left cheek. 6. For howl many kilometres does this forest stretch?

  3. 1. I like to sleep on a camp-bed, I find it very comfortable. 2.1 believe Friday the only convenient day for our meeting, we have only four lectures on that day. 3. Though the flat was rather comfortable, warm, light and cosy, it was not convenient for our work as it was rather small. 4. These shoes are very convenient for wear in wet weather as they have rubber soles.

  4. 1. The two streams join at the foot of the mountain. 2. United we stand, divided we fall. 3. One by one the children joined in the game. 4. The partisans' detachment joined the regular army and the enemy lost the battle against their joint/united forces. 5. All peace-loving people should unite in their struggle against a new war. 6. Won't you join me in a walk?

Ex. XIII, p. 23

1. It makes no difference. 2. Rivers run into the sea. 3. You can't depend on him. 4. Make yourself comfortable. 5. French is different from English in having far more verbal inflexions. 6. He looks ill. 7. Join these points with a line. 8. This street runs east and west. 9. He refused to depend on his parents (for a living). 10. I differ from/with you. 11. I'll run the car into the garage. 12. Will you join us? 13. I ran across/into him in London last week. 14. Look here, Tom! 15. This tool is convenient. 16. These are different people with the same name. 17. Why does Jane keep silent?



Ex. XIV, p. 23

1. Он оглядел комнату и заметил открытую шкатулку с драгоценностями, которую кто-то беспечно оставил на столе. 2. Было что-то странное в ее резком переходе от вчерашнего напряженного ожидания к сегодняшнему безразличию. 3. Вединстве наша сила. 4. Отец напомнил мне, что я нахожусь на его полном иждивении/в полной зависимости от него. 5. Ему пришлось столкнуться со множеством людей, принадлежащих к другому миру, и они, пожалуй, вызвали у него восхищение и зависть. 6. Я все время действую под влиянием момента/импульсивно, что доставляет неудобства и мне, и другим. 7. Он чувствовалсебя неуютно из-за того, что ему приходится менять планы и придумывать что-то новое. 8. Он сердился на Нору из-М того, что та не захотела оставить все как есть.



Ex. XIX, р. 25

...There are no children — there are just human beings with a different scale of notions, a different stock of experience, different interests and a different play of feelings. Remember that we don't know them...

All contemporary upbringing of children is aimed at making the child convenient for the adults. Consistently, step by step it st rives to lull, to suppress, to wipe out. 11 that makes up the child's will, his freedom, his fortitude and the strength of his demands.

If the child is polite, obedient, sweet and convenient to you, you often give no thought to his becoming a spineless loser in the future...

Have you ever noticed how often you hear your child say, "Shall I open it?" when there is a ring at the door?

In the first place the lock on the entrance door is difficult to cope with, secondly there is a feeling that there, on the other side »f the door/beyond the door a grown-up is standing who cannot



) to think privately — to think to oneself the most vital job — the most important job a rewarding job — a job that gives satisfaction (but perhaps

not much money) a challenge to your character — something that puts your

character to the test an ignorant teacher — a teacher lacking knowledge or education

a guardian — 1. someone who guards or protects (блюститель, защитник, хранитель); 2. a person who has the legal responsibility of looking after a child that is not their own, especially after the parents' death (опекун) th£ same routine — the same fixed and regular way of

working or doing things stimulating worjj — work that is pleasant because it suggests

or encourages new ideas or ways of thinking to go in for teaching — to take up teaching, to become a teacher

Ex. II, p. 31

) to make/take a choice, to have a vocation for smth ./to be good t smth., to be interested in smth., to consider teaching as a areer, to appreciate, to be devoted to one's work, to serve humanity, a burning desire to know, respect for smb.; b) to be good at smth., actually, since/as, devoted, admit, rewarding, genuinely, awareness, to destroy.

Ex. VII, p. 33

1. When he was young/In his youth, he studied chemistry at university. 2. Children learn foreign languages easily. 3. I was very upset when I learned that I hadn't passed the exam. 4. He Btudied/was studying in his room all/the whole evening. 5. Study this information very carefully: it will help you to make the right choice. 6. My sister is studying to become a lawyer. 7. Unfortunately he never learned to read and write. 8. You are still to learn how to cope with difficult problems in class.

Ex. IX a), p. 34

Bob: What are you going to take up as a career? John: Architecture. Actually, I've already started. I began my studies last October.



manage on his own and is waiting for you, little though you are to help...

Such are the small victories celebrated by a child who u already dreaming of long travels to distant lands. In his dreaml he is a Robinson Crusoe on a desert island whereas in reality he ii beside himself with joy even when he is just allowed to look ou of the window.


Ex. XXI, p. 25

1. I looked about and saw that there wasn't a single woodei house left in the village. 2. The old doctor remained the same kind sincere man that we had known since we were children (since™ from childhood). 3. There is at least a month to go/a month left| before we leave, but we are already looking forward to our holida; and making different plans for the summer. 4. Let me know i you decide to stay with your aunt for the rest of the vacations I'll join you then. 5. The only way out left is to ask/There i nothing for it but to ask/There is nothing to be done but to ask. thisold woman to look after the children. 6. "Look here, rilsweepf the floor and wash up/wash the dishes and you'll do the rest OK?" — "OK /It's a deal!/Deal!" 7. A few players stayed on thol' volley-ball pitch, and the rest went to the swimming-pool for al swim. 8. Are you looking for your overcoat? It has been left am the garden. Let me fetch it.


Ex. I, p. 31

a) machines [md'/fcnz] appreciate [a' prkficit] humanity [ h j u:' m a: n 11 i ] vital [vaitl] challenge [' tfslinds] individual [,indi' vidsusl] awareness [a'weonis] ignorance [' ignorans] fearful [*fi»f(3)1] boredom [' bsdsm | medium [' miidiam] accept[ak'sept] routine [ru:' ti:n] stimulating [' stimju lei tin] variety [va' raioti]


Bob: What are you going to do when yuu f InlnhV

John: Oh, I shall go back home and pHMtlM • ">y native town. There's a lot of useful work to be don* llli»ri» building schools, hospitals, homes for the people.

Bob: What made you decide to tnkn up irohitoeture as a

career?


John: Well, I was good at Maths and Ail ill >» hool and I think I had a certain feeling for design. My leachei nncouraged me and said I had a bent for architecture.

Bob: I find that some young people fail to Inko up a career

because they're not sure what they want to do ami what career

opportunities there are.

John: Yes, that's true. But usually your ptfaonnl qualities show up at school, don't they? Teachers guide and tncourage the young to take up the careers for which they're heal muled.

Ex. XII, p. 35

1. His love for children made him take up teaching ami career/ become a teacher/go in for teaching and he never regreti.d was sorry about his choice. 2. It looks like I'll have to < Iiooho Ix-tween working in a day-care centre/kindergarten/nursury school and going to a teacher-training college. 3. There isn't much variety in my work, but it has its advantages/merits. 4.1 am afraid that this time it will be difficult for the pupils/schoolchildren to cope with the task. 5. The pupils' progress depends to a great extent/degree (The pupils' progress largely depends) on their teacher and his professional skill. 6. Work in a school will be a challenge to your intelligence, tact and a sense of responsibility/will require from you intelligence, tact and a sense of resposibility. 7. Respect can be earned only by honest work. 8. In Britain not every graduate of a teacher-training college can find a job. 9.1 have been working as a teacher/I've been in teaching for many years, and I can say that I couldn't find nobler work. 10. My friend chose medicine for a career when he was still at school. He has always been sure that it is the most vital work in the world. 11. My love of music and my interest in the theory of education made me consider/think about teaching music as a career. 12. School-leavers often have difficulty (in) deciding/find it difficult to decide (It is often difficult for school-leavers to decide) what trade/profession to choose. In this case the teachers and the parents can help them to make the right choice of university. Besides every school has a system of career counselling. 13. In this country'/In our country teaching has traditionally been one of the most respected professions. 14. What attracts you in teaching?



Ex. XV a), p. 37

Как я был школьным учителем: воспоминания и невзгоды

Стоит ли говорить, что родители учеников играют в жизни учителя не последнюю роль и именно их следует винить во многих его горестях и печалях. Каких только разновидностей родителей я не встречал! Наилучшая из них — это английский отец старой закалки, который приводя сына в школу, говорит тебе: «Если этот парень будет плохо себя вести, задайте ему хорошую трепку. Если он и тогда не исправится, дайте мне знать — я приеду и выдеру его сам. Ему положен шиллинг в неделю на карманные расходы, а если потратит больше, вы только дайте мне знать, и я вообще перекрою ему кран».

Жестокие слова, что и говорить, но именнотакая речь пробуждает в душе учителя сильнейшее расположение к несчастному ребенку, и когда папаша напоследок бросает: «До свидания, Джек» и дитя дрожащим голоском отвечает: «До свидания, папа», учитель невольно проникается мыслью о том, что надо быть последним мерзавцем, чтобы обидеть маленького страдальца, у которого такой отец.

Иное дело родитель современный, впитавший новомодные идеи. «В общем, я только что дал Джимми пять фунтов, — говорит он учителю тем же самым тоном, каким привык обращаться к какому-нибудь мелкому клерку у себя в конторе, — и объяснил, что, когда ему понадобится еще, нужно сказать вам сходить в банк и снять со счета столько, сколько ему требуется ». После чего такой папаша начинает втолковывать тебе, что у Джимми-де самобытная натура и что обходиться с ним надо как нельзя более бережно и тактично. «Мы с женой, — говорит он, — пришли к выводу, что, когда он начинает капризничать/впадает в ярость, лучше сделать, как он хочет, и в скором времени он образумится».
' The Russian word combination "в нашей стране" is olten translated into English as "in this country", but this phrase can be used only when the speaker is on the territory ol his country. If a Russian says "in this country" when he is in the USA, it will mean "in the USA".
В общем и целом из его слов следует, что Джимми можно лишь уговаривать, причем очень мягко, и ни в коем случае не принуждать к чрезмерным трудам.

Слушая такие речи, учитель, оскорбленный тем, что с ним обращаются как с какой-нибудь мелкой сошкой, впивается в распущенного сопляка Джимми взглядом василиска/хищным взглядом и думает про себя, что надо непременно попробовать взять его в ежовые рукавицы.




unit two
Ex I, p. 43

1. Mario wouldn't have come to England last year if John hadn't invited him. 2. Peter would have accepted your invitation if he hadn't been ill. 3. It wouldn't have been a hardship for the children to sweep and clean the rooms yesterday, would it? 4. If the weather had been fine, we should have gone to a holiday camp when we had our holiday. 5. We would have lived in a hotel in Sochi if the rates hadn't been very high. 6. It would have been natural if they hadn't met after their quarrel. 7. My friend and I would have gone to the cinema after that lesson if the rest of the students had agreed to go with us. 8. If the weather hadn't changed, we should have gone to the country yesterday evening.



Ex. II, p. 44

1. If the doctors that had treated Bob weren't very experienced, he wouldn't have recovered. 2. Mary wouldn't havel passed the exams if she weren't so industrious. 3. We wouldn't have invited John Brown to our tea-party if we weren't acquainted with him. 4. I would have left the children alone i they weren't so naughty. 5. She would have agreed to teach us French if she knew the language well. 6. Martha wouldn't have understood the German delegates if she weren't German. 7. wouldn't have given you this book if it were not interesting. 8. wouldn't have advised my friends to have a walking tour if weren't fond of walking tours myself.



Ex. IV, p. 44

1. Don't worry, the child wouldn't be so cheerful if he were seriously/gravely ill. 2. A beard and a moustache wouldn't become you, you would look much older than your age. 3. It would be better if they didn't allow the children to watch TV so late. 4. It would have been natural if the children had asked me about their new teacher, but no one asked this question. 5. If I were you, I would eat fewer sweets/less candy, you'll put on weight. 6. It would have been natural if he had become a scientist, he was good at the Exact Sciences at school, but he has become an actor. 7. You would have finished this translation long ago if you hadn't talked/chatted so much over/on the phone/ by phone. 8. You wouldn't have forgotten to phone me if you weren't so absenfcminded.


Ex. Ill, p. 56

a) ache [eik] 1. n боль (продолжительная, по не острая); 2. v болеть, ныть, ломить; чувствовать боль fever f firva] 1. жар, высокая температура; 2. лихорадка medicine [' meds(o)n] 1. медицина; 2. лекарство (от — for) capsule [' k ;i: р sj u: 11 капсула purgative [' p3:got i v] слабительное germ [d33:m] микроб, болезнетворная бактерия acid['a:sid] 1. n кислота; 2. adj кислотный, кислый influenza [.mflu'cnza] (тж.разг. flu) грипп variousf vc(3)rias] 1. различный, разный; разнообразный;

2. многие, разные (только с множ. числом) pneumonia [nju:' mavnio] воспаление легких, пневмония

area [' e(a)ria] 1. площадь (страны, квартиры, треуголь ника и т. п.), пространство, участок; 2. местность, район, зона; 3. сфера, область (деятельности и т. п.)

pirate [' pai(a)rat] пират

natural [' na;t/(a)ral ] естественный, натуральный bother f ЬгхЭэ] 1. докучать, беспокоить; 2. беспокоить, волновать

prescribe [pri'skraib] прописывать (лекарство, мед. про

цедуру и т. п.) bush [bvf] куст

brush [ЬглГ] 1. п щетка; кисть (художника); 2. и чистить щеткой


worry ['WAri,'w3:ri:] 1. n беспокойство, волнение, тревога, озабоченность; 2. итревожить(ся), беспокоиться), волноваться)

thermometer [6э' mom из] термометр, градусник absolutely [' аеbsэ 1 u:11 i ] абсолютно, совершенно, совсем relax [п' lacks] 1. расслаблять(ся); 2. успокаиваться

b) shut — shut, shut, shutting

overcome — overcame, overcome, overcoming — преодолевать

lie — lay, lain, lying — лежать

lie — lied, lied, lying — лгать

lay — laid, laid, laying — класть

wake — waked, waked; woke, woken, waking

freeze — froze, frozen, freezing

worry — worried, worried, worrying

die — died, died, dying

Ex. VI, p. 57


  1. refuse — refusal prescribe — prescription pain — painful, painless

ache — headache, toothache, stomachache, earache, backache condition — conditional, unconditional — безоговорочный bare — barefooted), barelegged, bareheaded, bareheaded.barely like — likeness, alike, unlike

  1. to read aloud — to read to oneself, to read silently in good condition — in bad condition

at the foot of the bed — at the head of the bed

at the foot of the mountain/page — at the head/top of

the mountain/page the girl had shoes on — the girl was barefoot the seat is occupied — the seat is vacant/free the trees are covered with leaves — the trees are bare to be asleep — to be awake


  1. голый — naked, bare дрожать — to tremble, to shiver отказаться — to refuse, to give up

Ex. VII, p. 57

a) — What hurts you?



  • I can't say I feel any sharp pain in some definite place, I just ache all over.




  • Does it hurt you to move your arms, legs or head?

  • My head aches all the time, it hurts me to look at the light and each movement is painful.

  • Well, I must examine you. Don't be afraid, it won't be painful.

  • But doctor, each touch gives me pain.

  • Well, try and take it easy.




  1. — Your child's health is in a rather bad condition, he must be thoroughly examined in the polyclinic.

  • But, doctor, he is in no condition to leave the house, he is too weak.

  • Perhaps we'd better take him to hospital then.

  • Oh, doctor, isn't it possible to keep him at home?

  • Well, only on condition that you follow all my instructions.

  1. 1. In spite ofiiis father's wish he refused to leave the Medical Institute as he was fond of medicine and didn't want to give it up. 2.1 decided to break with him after he had refused to help me when I was in great need of help. 3. Though she regularly refused his proposals, he couldn't give up his dream of marrying her sooner or later. 4. If she asks me for any favour, I'll never refuse her. 5. If I were you, I wouldn't give up my plan so easily.

  2. 1. The children jumped and squealed like little puppies. 2. The girl tried to behave like a grown-up person. 3. She was invited to this conference as a specialist in medicine. 4. He works as a doctor in one of our hospitals. 5. You just listen to him, he speaks like a real doctor, though he doesn't know anything about medicine. 6. As your doctor, I don't allow you to get up for some more days.


Ex. X, p. 59

l.The clinical thermometer is a small thermometer for finding out the temperature of the body. 3. The boiling point of the Fahrenheit thermometer is 212", of the Centigrade


thermometer — 100" and of the Reamur thermometer — 80'. 3. A kilometre is a measure of length as well as a mile and a foot; a kilogram and a pound are measures of weight. 4. His high temperature worried the boy because he didn't know the difference between Fahrenheit and Centigrade thermometers.

Ex. XII, p. 60

1. What conditions did you live under/in when you were a child? 2. I have put down all he said about it/all his remarks on this matter. 3. If you had taken these pills yesterday, you would be feeling much better today. 4. The girls looked miserable when they were told that their mother was ill. 5. Let the children run barefoot, it won't do them any harm. 6. All sick people are alike: they worry about small/little things (about trifles) and behave like children. 7. If I were you, I wouldn't write down this data, it is of no great importance. 8. If you stay awake, you will feel awful tomorrow. 9. I like this doctor because he doesn't prescribe too many medicines. 10. Is he absent again? It's just like him to miss lessons when we are having a test. 11. I wouldn't say that there was much likeness between us/that we were much alike. 12. It looks like rain. I think we had better stay at home.



Ex. XIII, p. 61

a) "Well, you'd better let me take your temperature," said Griffiths.

"It's quite unnecessary," answered Philip irritably. "Come on."

Philip put the thermometer in his mouth. Griffiths sat at/by the side of the bed and chattered brightly for a moment, then he took it out and looked at it.

"Now, look here, old man, you stay in bed, and I'll bring old Deacon (round/around) to have a look at you."

"Nonsense," said Philip. "There's nothing the matter. I wish you wouldn't bother about me."

"But it isn't any bother. You've got a temperature and you must stay in bed. You will, won't you?"

"You've got a wonderful bedside manner," Philip murmured, closing his eyes with a smile.

b) 1. — Philip was not irritated at Griffith's advice, was he?


  • Yes, he was. He said there was nothing the matter with him.




  1. — Philip put the thermotmeter under his arm, didn't he?

  • No, he didn't. He put it in his mouth.

  1. — Philip's temperature wasn't all right, was it?

  • No, it wasn't. It was high.

  1. — Griffiths didn't even try to chatter sitting at his friend's bed, did he?




  • But he did. He chattered brightly before taking the thermometer out.

6. — Philip thought that there was nothing the matter with him, didn't he?

  • Yes, he did. At least that's what he said to Griffiths.




  1. — There was really nothing the matter with Philip, wasn't there? *"

  • But there was. Griffiths wanted to bring a doctor to have a look at him, so perhaps he suspected that Philip might have pneumonia.

  1. — Griffiths didn't want Philip to stay in bed, did he?

  • Byt he did. That's just what he told him to do.

  1. — Philip didn't want his friend to look after him, did he?

  • No, he didn't. He didn't want to bother him.

  1. — Griffiths was going to bring a doctor to Philip, wasn't he?

  • Yes, he was. He was worried about his friend's health.

  1. — Philip smiled because he wanted his friend to think that he was all right, didn't he?

  • No, he didn't. I think he smiled because he was glad that he had such a devoted friend./— Yes, he did. He wanted his friend to stop worrying.

Ex. XIV, p. 62

The mother was sitting by the child's bed, her eyes fixed on him. The child was lightheaded, he had a high fever, his cheeks were flushed, and there were dark areas/smudges/shadows under his eyes. A neighbour dropped in, she brought a thermometer and some medicine. She said that it would bring down the temperature. Two hours later the mother took the child's temperature and saw that the medicine hadn't worked.

The doctor came and said that the child had pneumonia, but there was no grave/serious danger yet. He asked when the boy had
iiilli-ii ill. The mother remembered that since Tuesday he had been NiiyniK »11 the time that he had a headache and was aching all over.

"Don't worry. Everything will be all right," the doctor said. "Hut you had better take the child to hospital."

"I'd rather look after him myself," said the mother.

"Well," said the doctor. "I won't insist. You needn't worry. If you follow my directions, I'm sure that in a few days he'll get better."

The doctor left, but he thought that it would have been better to take the child to hospital.

Ex. I, p. 71

in an unthinking moment — without thinking of the effect

of what one is going to do idly turn the leaves — lazily turn the pages a fatal malady — a deadly/mortal/terminal illness, an illness

causing death

premonitory symptoms — early symptoms giving warning

that one is falling ill complication — a new illness that happens during the course

of another illness and makes treatment more difficult to walk the hospitals — to observe and do practical work in

hospitals, e. g. to examine patients, try to diagnose their

diseases, cut up corpses, etc. (said of medical students) to time the pulse — to count the number of heartbeats per

minute by simultaneausly feeling the pulse and looking at

the second hand of a watch all for nothing — without charging any fee, for free the prescription ran — the prescription said a family hotel — a hotel for families

to follow the directions — to follow the advice on what to do his life was preserved — he survived



Ex. II, p. 71

b) болезнь — illness [ilnis], disease [di'zi:z], malady I in.clod 11. ailment feilmsnt] симптом — symptom [' simptam] отчаяние — despair [di'spco]

тиф — 1. typhoid f taifbid], typhoid fever ftaifaidTirvo] (брюшной тиф); 2. typhus ['taifos], spotted fever [spotid 'firva] (сыпной тиф)

алфавит — alphabet [' aelfabet]

дифтерит — diphtheria [dif"9i(3)ri3], diphtheritis

[.difGa'raitis] холера/cholera [' кЫэгэ] талия — waist [weist] скарлатина — scarlet fever [ska: I it fi:va] аптекарь — chemist [' k e m i s t ] c) illness — disease, malady, ailment

friend — chum (pal, buddy — not from the text)

doctor — medical man

look quickly — glance

imagine — fancy

do a favour to smb. — oblige smb.

die — pass away


Ex. IV, p. 72

1. I am suffering from insomnia. 2. I am sneezing and coughing all the time. 3.1 have a sore throat. 4. To crown it all/ On top of all/I've caught a cold. 5.1 am short of breath. 6. Your lungs are all right. 7. Breathe in deeply through the nose. 8. You may have a nervous breakdown. 9. Have regular meals and keep to a diet of*vegetables. 10. A tablespoonful three times a day. 11. I promise you full recovery within three months. 12. I will think it over. 13. I'm glad I've found you in. 14. I'm bursting with news. 15. None of them! 16. It had been bothering him for two days. 17.1 was the only doctor in the surgery. 18. Poor thing! 19. Don't be silly. 20. I chose the easiest tooth to begin with. 21. And how did you get along? 22. I gave him a couple of injections/shots. 23. Perhaps I had better drop in..? 24. He will keep them (as souvenirs) to remember me by.



Ex. VII a), p. 73

He was taken to hospital and operated on/underwent an operation for appendicitis. — Его отвезли в больницу с приступом аппендицита и прооперировали.

After I've had some injections of tonic I feel quite cured of all my ailments. — После нескольких уколов тонизирующего препарата я, похоже, излечился от всех своих болячек.

The child is ill/laid up with chicken pox. He'll soon recover if no complications set in. — У ребенка ветрянка. Если не будет осложнений, он скоро поправится.


Smallpox is a catching disease marked by fever and small red spots on the body and often leaves permanent marks. — Оспа — это заразная болезнь, сопровождающаяся высокой температурой и появлением мелкой красной сыпи, от которой нередко остаются рубцы/неизгладимые отметины.

I've been on sick leave for a fortnight already, but I don't feel any better so far. — Я на больничном уже две недели, но мне пока не стало лучше.

The doctor diagnosed the illness as tuberculosis (t. b.). — Врач поставил диагноз: туберкулез./Врач определил, что у пациента туберкулез.

A doctor who performs/carries out operations is called a surgeon. Nowadays operations may be performed almost on any part of the body. — Врач, проводящий операции/осуществляющий оперативное вмешательство, называется хирургом. В настоящее время операции могут проводиться почти на любой части тела.

When people have pain in their teeth, they go to a dentist to have the holes in their teeth filled/stopped. When necessary, they may have their teeth taken/pulled out. — Когда у человека болят зубы, он идет к стоматологу, чтобы запломбировать их/ поставить пломбы. В случае необходимости больные зубы можно удалить.

People who are treated in health centres/polyclinics are called out-patients, those who stay in hospital are called in-patients. — Пациенты, которых лечат в поликлиниках, называются амбулаторными больными, а пациенты, которых лечат в боль ницах, — стационарными.

Something is wrong with my legs: all my joints ache and when I bend my knee, it hurts me. — У меня что-то с ногами: все сус тавы ноют и больно сгибать колено.

The old man's sight is getting dim, his eyes are sore, swollen and itching. — У старика слабеет зрение, глаза у него воспали-1 лись, опухли и чешутся.



Ex. VIII а), р. 73

Scarlet fever is an infectious fever, marked by the appearance on the second day of a bright red rash consisting of closely-set red spots. Shortly after the patient develops a high temperature and suffers from painful sore throat. On the third or fourth day the rash starts to fade and in favourable cases the temperature falls and the patient feels better. At the end of a week the rash usually disappears. Complete recovery may be expected within the following month. The complications of scarlet fever are very serious, the commonest being inflammation of the ear. Scarlet fever is essentially a disease of children and young persons.



Ex. XIII, p. 75

1. I must have caught (the) flu. 2. You had better consult a doctor. 3. The doctor felt my pulse, checked my heart and lungs and took my temperature. 4. She is in no condition to talk, she has got a terrible toothache. 5. I am shivering all over. I must have caught (a) cold. 6.1 can't read aloud, I have a sore throat. 7. There is nothing to worry about, he has been successfully operated on/his.operation has been a success. 8.1 think I'll take these pills for headache. 9. Why are you bare-headed in such weather? You have been seriously/gravely ill lately. Complications may set in./You may have complications. 10. Have you been X-rayed? 11. Here is the prescription. Take a tablespoonf ul of the mixture three times a day. 12. Have you sent for the doctor?



  1. You've gat two bad teeth. You ought to/should go to a dentist.

  2. The doctor asked the patient to strip to the waist and examined him. 15. Who will go to the chemist's to have the prescription/ medicine made up? 16. If you hadn't followed the doctor's directions, you wouldn't have recovered so quickly. 17. If I were you, I would keep to/follow a diet because there is something wrong with your stomach. 18. What a pity that the doctor forgot to prescribe a medicine for my running nose. 19. Why are you short of breath? Do you have a high blood pressure or is there anything/something wrong with your heart? 20. The child has scarlet fever. He will have to stay in bed for ten days or so/for about ten days.

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